UC Berkeley measures reductions of HC and NOx emissions in XBEE biodiesel

On March 28, 2006 the company Biodiesel Industries Inc. located in California, USA shared their conclusions regarding an extensive study covering biodiesels and their gas emissions.

This contract was funded by the District to study the feasibility of manufacturing and using biodiesel in the Bay Area. Almost half of the State’s petroleum refineries reside in the Bay Area. The District designed the contract parameters around proving both the economic feasibility of refining biodiesel from local feed stocks, as well as the availability of methods to reduce NOx, which is biodiesel’s largest drawback.

XBEE in biofuels

It is generally accepted that test methods for diesel also effect the test itself, therefore this contract required a variety of engines, both laboratory and field testing, as well as different testing technologies, to give the most accurate overall picture of how biodiesel and emission reduction additives will perform across real world fleets. The contractor was Biodiesel Industries Inc., which was recently awarded a US patent in biodiesel refining technology, and is a member of the National Biodiesel Board.

Biodiesel treatment - Berkeley University Combustion Analysis Laboratory

Arrangements were made to have testing done under the direction of Professor Robert Dibble at the Combustion Analysis Laboratory at the University of California at Berkeley. Professor Dibble, with the support of some of his graduate students, ran the testing protocols on a Cummins 5.9 liter diesel installed at the Combustion Analysis Laboratory during the summer of 2004.

The reference diesel fuel used for the tests was CARB ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) procured from the British Petroleum distributor in San Jose, Western States Oil. The biodiesel used was made using the Mini Modular Production Unit from feedstocks acquired in the Bay Area consisting of virgin refined soybean oil and used fryer oil. These two types of biodiesel were selected because research published by the USEPA suggests that NOx emissions would be highest with soy based biodiesel and lowest with used fryer oil based biodiesel.
Various blends of biodiesel and ULSD were tested, including 100% ULSD, 100% biodiesel produced from aggregate used vegetable oil, and 100% virgin soy oil.

The most obvious result of the emissions tests was that by using XBEE Enzyme Fuel Technology, NOx is substantially reduced in all formulas, and at either mix blends, B-20 or B-100. In addition to NOx, unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) also dropped substantially. The most effective fuel for total emissions reductions was B100 made from virgin soy oil and XBEE.

Aggregate used vegetable oils (B100)
Without XBEE
HC - Hydrocarbons (ppm)
CO - Carbon Monoxide (ppm)
PM - Particulate Matter (mg/Nm3)
NOx - Nitrogen Oxides (ppm)
Virgin soy oil (B100)
Without XBEE
HC - Hydrocarbons (ppm)
CO - Carbon Monoxide (ppm)
PM - Particulate Matter (mg/Nm3)
NOx - Nitrogen Oxides (ppm)